Something about English


Add a comment April 23, 2008

Check out my Slide Show!

Add a comment April 18, 2008

Something New to share…


Assalamualaikum and Welcome to you… J

 I’m glad that you want to know more about what I’m going to share with you. Yesterday I had visited several places without bring anything or buy any ticket. I just went there freely and I enjoyed exploring new things that I had never knew before. Do you want to know where ? I bet you eager to know more.

 I went to the cyber world just like you. Ever you ask this question in your mind that with this opportunity, I mean that blogging, help you to travel around the world without required you to do something that need you to do or you must do. Take for example, if you planning to have a trip to someware in the world you need to book a ticket, have enough money, or at least you need to prepared yourself or your belonging. That requisite you to spent more time and sometimes you tangle with unnecessarily problem. Well, you can figure it out. So, welcome again and If you have any comment just send it to me. Thanks a lot.

Here is a picture that I took while traveling there. I hope that you will get pleasure  with the scenery. Thanks for sharing and caring more information and new things with me..



Dubai Disney world an eye catching.

This theme park will make you freely and fascinated with wonderful panorama ever.






Add a comment April 14, 2008

The Last POsting

Assalamualaikum and welcome back… J




This posting will be my last post for my Language and Information technology on ICT assignment 2008. In this post I need to answer several questions about my experience on using blog. Before I continue further, lets me ask you question what is blogging activity? Blogging is a way of method of sharing input over the cyber world for pleasure or task that essentially to be complete as a student.




The definition of blog represent blog as a time-stamped articles, or posts in a diary or personel journal format listed in reverse chronologically order. There are common terms in blog such as ‘blogging’ and ‘blogger’. Blogging is an activity of posting a number of writing articles or messages. As well tolerate you to post  in your favourite pictures, keep family and friend updated on your latest adventures, communicate your interest or passion with millions of readers worldwide, comments and receive feedback from them. It that fun and interactive.




Besides that, blogs can be used as an Internet marketing instrument similar to article writing, and in a way social networking. They can be used to market public speaking gigs for the author, and to sell white papers and e-books the author has written. And they can make referrals to the author’s main Web site where she/he sells online coaching, offline boot camps, or similar services, or higher ticket products. Moreover, blogs can help their owners connect to other bloggers who are part of the blogoshere. And getting connecting translates into getting known.




In addition, blogs are great public relations and publicity tools for you to use in marketing your products and services. Especially if you want to start a business or you are already in business world. Your blog will help you funnel prospects and paying customers to your real Web site where you sell what you do for a living.



Furthermore, With blog you can also contribute to and convey feeling, thought, and ideas with all over the world without fear. However, there are ethic or moral guidelines that govern the use of this powerful technology. It does not mean that you simple can use it in any way. As a good and appropriate blogger, this guiding principle helps you not only become a superior and appropriate blogger but also an intellectual user.



With above explanation, surely I have already decided that I will keep on posting and add more info or something that I want to share with you viewers. I have made this decision base on the useful and effectiveness on blogging. Moreover, It challenges my ability to create an atmosfera of  knowledge, dare to  express feeling and thought, improve my soft skills and as a network social interaction. I’m too one day may publish my own product. Well, who’s know I will be famous and millionaire with blog.  





I never know that with blog I will be one of the cyber communities. I will meet more friends to share and I also freely to write or express my ideas and feeling without fear. Furthermore, as an English language student blogging helps me to improve my writing, reading, and speaking skills.   I need to read so that I can write and writing through blog is like talking to someone or to your friends. Blogging activity improves my writing skills. I’m still learning and up until know this blogging thing is still new and fresh to me. It is for the reason that Internet changes every second because of the intellectual of human beings. So, I believe that this is one of my path to keep on searching, learning, exploring and enjoying new knowledge and skills. For this reason too I need to do some research and visit several blogs to discover and get some idea on how to maintain my blog and to complete my assignments.




Additionally, The consumer and citizen are potentially better informed and this can only be good for the long-term health of our societies and economies. Blogs have potential to help the organization develop stronger relationships and brand loyalty with its customers, as they interact with the ‘human face’ of the organization through blogs. Blogs, in an intranet environment, can be an excellent way of sharing knowledge within the organization. Blogs can be a positive way of getting feedback, and keeping your finger on the pulse, as readers react to certain pieces, suggest story ideas, etc. Blogs can build the profile of the writer, showcasing the organization as having talent and expertise.




The greatest blogging experiment that I have found out is a long life learning experience. Why? Because every time I need to post my new assignment or adding some ideas. I have to search and learn on how to make it interesting and understandable. So, I read lot of articles and went to other bloggers blog to find out or get up to date idea how they explore their contents.  Moreover, I also learn to manage my time to update my blog. Indeed, I’m not only learn new knowledge but also learn time management.  



On the other hand, there are few problems that appear while I’m using blog. The major  problem is lack of knowledge on conducting blog. Because I’m still newbie in blogging. I still don’t understand on how to use template tags, use special technologies such as RSS feed, podcasting,vlogging and photoblgging, deals with spam and trackback and troubleshoot. Therefore I need to be trained more and practice with it.



Next, to maintain and create a good blog is not so easy as abc. Base on my research, most of my friends used blogspot than WordPress. In that case, sometimes I find it is difficult to exchange information and knowledge on how to maintain and be creative with this tool. So, this situation makes me independently study from other blogger from cyber world and perform with it. Maybe WordPress for Dummies will be my next dictionary.




Besides, I also facing problem on how to be a good blog writer. I’m excel in speaking than writing. I have difficulty in expressing ideas on writing. I need extra time to complete a task. Besides,  However, after accomplished numerous tasks that been given by my lecturer Datin Norizan and with her encouraging atmosphere. It really helps me to build up my confident and ability to write.


 So, good blogging has to start with good writing–having an idea to share with readers, analyzing other people’s perspectives, conversation and building and extending knowledge. Blogging also allows for your audience to actually respond to you, if you choose–then it could become a conversation. All too often comments are simply things like “great post,” or “I disagree…” But they do not take the time to develop a counter idea. They do not extend the conversation. I hope that I will achieve that opportunity to be a successful writer by discover my own voice and that is the power of blogging




As a student, to have an audience beyond my immediate classmates can prove a rewarding and dynamic experience. It can raise the game. In reading other students’ posts I can enrich my own perspectives. By looking above pros and cons, I see enhance in advantages that disadvantages. Therefore, I will definitely recommend to my friends about blogging. It will assist me with more fascinating and knowledgeable experiences.



I love you Prof Datin Dr Norizan Abdul Razak for all your teaching, encouraging, helpful, comments, and mostly your smile. I also want to thank Puan Zaini for your understandable and always eager to maximize input about this subject to us. May Allah grand both of you with His almighty kindheartedness. You are the best teachers teach from the heart. That all are my extraordinary experiences in learning SKBP Language and Information Technology 2008 UKM.


“The dream begins with a teacher who believes in you, who tugs and pushes and leads you to the next plateau, sometimes poking you with a sharp stick called “truth.”  ~Dan Rather




 Here are some additional news about      “How internet triumph the world”

Do you know that Internet is One of the New Seven Wonders in the world? Just  Visit this website  and I’m sure that you will spark with this amazing fact.


 Milion of thank you.Happy Blogging and keep on.  



Discovering Computer 2008, Gary B.Shelly,Thomas J.Cashman, Misty E. Vermaat.

Online Teaching Learning In ELT, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan, Norizan Abdul Razak, Mohamed Amin Embi.Penerbitan USM,2006. 



1 comment April 4, 2008

Check out my Slide Show!

Add a comment April 4, 2008

My Fifth posting

Fifth Posting on online testing experiences. 


Assalamualaikum and welcome back to all of you!. I’m glad that you are in the happy mood. Today, I would like to share with you about my novel experience in online test Uji Ict  for Asas Level that posted in e-warga UKM. Before I enlighten any further. Lets see what I have obtain for my online result. 




Electronic Malaysian Competency Test – Reading Test (Set 1)

Score: 21 out of 35 – 60 %Time taken: 40m 

 Online Quiz Result :: Kemahiran Asas ICT

Your score : 40/30

Online Quiz Results Summary  Your Attempts : 1

Total Class Attempts : 577

Your Quiz Score : 40/30

Your Highest Score Ever : 40



Note: This may not be your final marks . Due to some of the subjective and semi-objective questions

(short essay and fill in the blank)



 This is my second experiences in online test. My first experienced regarding in online matter was when I took my first computerized test for my driving license in 2006. However, both tests provided me with tremendously great experiences. Both online test represent difference approaches however they are the same in terms of testing on screen. With the rapid growth of ICT nationwide, more people are looking forward on how to make best use of internet concerning in they purposes. Many division whether in public or private triumph over to be part of an exciting, media-rich learning environment in search of academic excellence.  Before any further, lets us comprehend “What is Online testing ?”


According to Online testing is a wide range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to on-screen testing. Due to its obvious similarity to e-learning, the term e-assessment is becoming widely used as a generic term to describe the use of computers within the assessment process. E-assessment can be used to assess cognitive and practical abilities. Cognitive abilities are assessed using e-testing software; practical abilities are assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software.



Base on my understanding on online test or e- assessment is one of the power technologies tool that can enhance the ability of the student comprehension and as a device for teacher or organization to minimize the loaded work on marking papers and also have more time to assist  students work, ability and knowledge. In addition, online testing not only beneficial on teacher and student development but also enhance the professionalize workers sector. Most of the private or public sectors decide on the online environment whether in online learning or testing because of the convenience of studying when and where they wish and also its broad conveniences.


According to Online Teaching Learning in ELT page 302 – 303, online Language Proficiency Assessment, the efficiency of using Information and Communication technology (ICT) as one of  the top management agenda. In this agenda UKM represent the objectives of the UKM strategic Pelan for 2000 – 2020 that are to spearhead the campus ICT agenda by upgrading the ICT literacy and cultural activities, to establish efficient management and services system, to upgrade training and staff development program and to prepare lifelong learning to all. Therefore, UKM approve a full use of e- economy and e- campus atmosphere for the campus community and stakeholders.


As a result, LearningCare as a web-based system education program , e- learning  widely use for intra – and inter organization in UKM as one of the online learning device for UKM community and academicians. This instrument also present LearningCare Assessment Facility module test for academicians. ( p 302- 304 )   


My experience during apply this Online test comprise both pros and cons. First of all online testing is asynchronous. In general, asynchronous (pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning “not with,” and chronos, meaning “time”) is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time (


This means that this program surely allowing you to accessed anywhere in the campus as long that there are internet capacity. In my case, I have to finish both tests in a specific time given at computer lab 3 , however the second test, we didn’t have much time so several of my friends and I have to complete the second test at the other lab because the computer lab 3  is uses for Mandarin class. However, we have to complete the test according to the time given. As a result,  I still managed to completed the second test. That the good part of online test.


Next, the advantages of using online test is when it come to the outcomes or feedback. It also provided immediate feedback. That means after you had completed the test, submit your answers then your will get your results just least than 3 minutes. However, this online test only provided the marks, details on the number of user score, user highest score ever and overall high score not the answer of the questions. So, I can’t check my mistakes and I also did not know which of my answer is correct and which is wrong. Therefore, it did not offer reflection or revision.


Besides that, the content of the first online test is more on comprehension for general English proficiency and the test is conducted in level version. That means we will complete the test level by level. In my case, I have been given a specific code number to enter my online test in E- learning portal. This is my first time online test so I just completed the test for level 1 as a beginner. The first and the second tests have the time limit so I have to finish the questions in 40 – 50 minutes. The questions included with three articles and each article provided with 12 – 15 questions. These questions presented in increasing order of difficulty.(p306) The second online test is about computer applications. Nevertheless, the second questions is in Bahasa Malaysia. Most of the computer application that I had learnt was in English, therefore I have major problem to understand the terms.


In conclusion, the experimental in online test surely offer beneficial  for UKM academicians. However, there are plenty of work to be done in terms of increase the uses of this technology computerized. As mention in Online Language Proficiency Assessment in terms of test design, reporting of the scores, the information about the online test and so on ( p 307). I believe that this small disadvantages will not effect the entire strength of UKM aspiration in broaden the excellent IT infrastructure and agenda in UKM ( P 302).

Happy blogging and have a nice day. J



















1 comment March 31, 2008

My Advertisment about books.

My Advertisment about books.

Pleasure reading has cognitive benefits. It improves skill and strategy use, builds fluency, enlarges vocabulary, and builds a student’s knowledge of the world. So, read  a lot then you will gain more too. 

Add a comment March 31, 2008

The fourth posting.


Assalamualaikum and good day to you. How is your holiday? I hope that you will always happy and healthy. Now, I m going to tell you something about my fourth posting. It is quite interesting and new to me. It’s about concordance. Have you heard about it before? No? I knew that….So, today I am willing to share with you what my Lecturer, Datin Norizan had taught me about it. 

Concordance is a tool or program software that really helps you to do listing words in context. to study how words are used in a language, analyze keywords, to find phrases, idioms and translation, and allow us to acquire a deeper understanding of meaning and usage of words or phrases in any books or dictionary.

Concordance also helps the scientist to analyze genetics principally on individual characteristic and actions. For example, twin studied in behavior genetic. You can search more information about concordance in this website and  In short, concordance not only suitable for those who in English study but also involve on Sciences study.

Therefore, in this particular activity needs me to explain to you more on the discussion about ‘Beyond Concordance Lines: Using ConcordanceTo Investigate Language Developmant’ by Arshad Abd. Samad UPM. In addition, I will include the articles/ publication on the application of concordance. Moreover, I will also represent the application of concordance in language teaching and learning. I believe that you will gain as much as I have referring to this matter.

 One of the articles that I manage to find out about concordance is in Lexisnexis journal online database. Lets read what this article talk about concordance.

 Although it was initially introduced more than 20 years ago and has acquired a loyal user base, Concordance is still sometimes erroneously compared with traditional database management software. However, the simple fact is that Concordance cannot be compared in any respect to a typical, general purpose database management program. On the contrary, Concordance is a highly focused program that features sophisticated text search and retrieval functions specifically designed for managing the high volumes of data generated in litigation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide the reader with greater insight into Concordance by clearly defining not only what it is, but also what it isn’t. We’ll start the process by looking at  traditional database management and how it compares to text database management. 

Traditional Database Management 

As used in the computer industry, the term “database” typically refers to a computer-based storage area for a large amount of both general and specific information related to a particular topic. For example, a database of customer records can store basic information such as names, addresses, and phone numbers, but can also contain detailed information regarding past purchases payment histories, and more. In this example, the standard database software package normally includes search and retrieval functions for locating specific customer records. In addition, it also provides the ability to cross-tabulate records as a means of acquiring more insight into the relationships between various data elements. While these database management products may possess some rudimentary ability to search for text/text strings, and can even include some file searching capabilities, they are incapable of performing detailed search and retrieval of very specific text information.  

Text Database Management 

Text database management differs substantially from traditional database management in that its focus is searching for, retrieving, and categorizing specific words, phrases, or combinations of words. The ability to perform detailed text searches is particularly important for individuals whose work is heavily text-concentrated, for example attorneys, scientific researchers, marketing researchers, librarians, and personnel managers for resume retrieval  


Any collection of text-based information that people want to access in an ad-hoc manner is a candidate for a full text database manager. Information that would be of value to a large number of corporate or institutional users is a great candidate for network placement. One typical application is the human resources department that not only needs to search through thousands of resumes to identify potential job candidates, but also wants to make the resource available directly to hiring managers throughout the company. Another example is the corporate legal department that needs to track litigation through large volumes of records. Drug companies require this type of system to maintain indexes to manufacturing status, lab and research notebooks, regulatory compliance, and adverse effects data. Other applications include CD-ROM publishing by corporations, foundations and agencies.  These specific examples illustrate ways in which Concordance is being used in the “real world”:  

• The Primate Information Center at the University of Washington uses it to publish the world’s premier source of indexed scientific literature on primate research.  

• The Medical Data Exchange in Mountain View, California uses it to synopsize and publish important medical articles for the layperson.  

• Fabulous Footage in Toronto, Ontario, Canada uses Concordance to manage their stock footage library. They publish the library in Concordance format for their worldwide library associates.  

Concordance: Sophisticated Text Search and Retrieval

In text database management, text search and retrieval is highly sophisticated in nature. Concordance provides users with an advanced, interactive language to locate information quickly and precisely. Searchers can specify individual numbers, dates, words, word fragments, phrases, specific fields, previous searches, or any combination. Each retrieved word is automatically displayed on the search screen showing the total number of occurrences and documents located. The display shows users both what was found and why it was found. Modeled on powerful mainframe text retrieval systems, Concordance combines the speed and capacity of the large systems with the ease of use and flexibility found in personal computers 

Base On my point of view, Concordance perfectly has all the features needed so that you can find facts fast and analyze with precision; an extended search language with twenty query operators, support for fixed and free text fields, automatically numbered and recallable query sets, the ability to load existing databases, fully integrated word processing, and a powerful programming language for customized applications. Moreover, it also supports fuzzy logic, a unique and very valuable feature which enables searching techniques that locate key words even when they are misspelled or mistyped. When you add to that its industry-leading database capacity, fast and accurate text retrieval, and easy to use working environment; you can see why Concordance is the discovery software of choice.



1 comment March 27, 2008

Welcome to my Third posting

Assalamualaikum..and good day to you. Thank you and welcome.. 

Today I am going to explain about The Impact of ICT in Business. After several times I’m searching through e-journal database at Perpustakaan Tun Sri Lanang about this topic, I manage to understand that ICT definitely produce and enhance the developing in business. To discover all the information regarding to the topic, I go through various databases such as SCOPUS, LISA NET, EBSCOhost and Lexis-Nexis Academic University. It’s entertaining but quite exhausting Then, I found it easier to expand the knowledge in Lexis-Nexis rather than other database. The impact of using ICT for business.

 During the early day of ICT, universities are the first and foremost group of people that engaged with the internet. They develop huge potentials in the uses of internet services such as emails, newsgroup, blog, and even in their course work. Later, the waves of internet expand to financial industries then expeditious to general businesses. The reflection on remarkable business services help them to build up through transaction, communication, marketing and their own business model. This chronological construct them understand the positive reward from ICT in its productivity figures, high-level development, ability in decrease the expendures and the optimistic on business future.  

 According to the research by Dr Wayne Summers, It took 35 years from the date the telephone was invented for it to reach 25% of the world population, 26 years for the television to achieve the same feet, 16 years for the personal computer, but only seven years for internet. Lets us look what technology trailblazer and economists expert say about ICT. 

“In the last forty years, adoption and implementation in the public sector has been slower than the private sector in most of the Asia Pacific countries. The private sector has been encouraged to use ICT in many types of business functions such as information management, payroll, and accounting since the 1960s” (Ong 2001)

“Information technology and business are becoming inextricably interwoven. I don’t think anybody can talk meaningfully about one without the talking about the other” (Bill Gates 2002)

“ICT plays a vital role in advancing economic growth and reducing poverty. A survey of firms carried out in 56 developing countries finds that use ICT grow faster, invest more, and are more productive and profitable than those that do not”(Dr Wayne Summers 2006).  

From the quotations above, illustrate that the uses of ICT reveal the real crucial consequences on business and economic enlargement. Moreover, economic development experts continue to give increasing attention to the information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector because of its demonstrated positive impact principally on business. However, ICT is not only a “silver bullet” to increase productivity. It is however, and essential element of any holistic strategy to improve efficiency at the business sector, or company level.  

The Government’s information and communications technology (ICT) approachable policies on ICT significantly reveals that the year 2008 there will be a major growth driver from the ICT in Malaysia business industry. According to Frost & Sullivan’s economic researcher “Although the year 2008 Budget will benefit both the ICT community and consumer, it has made nominal allocations for the ICT industry when compared to the 2007 budget and local government financial support for private equity funds and venture capital for ICT has been addressed in the 2008 Budget” (Lakshmi Ramamurthy).  

Besides, the Government’s positive attitude towards ICT will see higher technology spending in education and small and medium-sized enterprise sectors, ICT research and in business. Due to this, a local economist Dr. Cheng Ming Yu, who heads the economic unit of the faculty of management at Multimedia University, lay emphasis on identify the new strategies to expand the maximum apply on ICT for business.

 There are three impacts of ICT in businesses that are ICT in business investment, production and innovation. Economists believe that Investing in ICT for business services conduct to capital deepening which in turn leads to increases in labour productivity. Furthermore, the investment in ICT reveals that many developed countries in the past decade manage to evolution successfully. The significant to that contribution is show heighten in accounting for between 0.3 and 0.8 percentage points of GDP per head growth in the OECD in the 1995- 2001 period. US, Australia, Canada, the Nordic countries and other European countries are the largest investors amounts of capital in ICT goods and services. On this view, ICT investments still continues growth to the other countries as well as in Malaysia.

A part from that, the countries with a big ICT production manufacture good and services show magnificent contribution in GDP economic growth. The European countries that benefits most from ICT production are Finland, Ireland and Sweden, which assemble the largest total of ICT hardware and software. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth is an important measure of ICT impact on productivity. According to the most economist expert and a policymaker, government should intervene to create or boost of ICT producing sector artificially. The only way to be competes or at par with the largest manufacture of ICT is the government and private sectors have to involve actively participation in ICT production. 

Why US companies excellently embrace Technological innovation than their European counterparts? What is the secret? There only one secret that makes US lead the first place in technology innovation. In answering this question, let’s recap what commentators point to America’s success in harnessing ICT for economic benefit. US companies are aware of the gigantic profit in ICT to the business as well as economic growth. US companies policy follow on their pledge to foster an entrepreneurial culture. As an example, encouraging new firm creation unquestionably display their effort in rising the full use of technology innovation to new and fresh ideas.  Therefore, they manage to identify the prospect and reap the reward.

This new knowledge economy will rely heavily on knowledge workers….the most striking growth will be in “knowledge technology”: computer technicians, software designers, analysts in clinical labs, manufacturing technologists, paralegals….. They are not as a rule much better paid than traditional skilled workers did, but they see themselves as “professionals”. Just as unskilled manual workers in manufacturing were the dominant social and political force in the 20th century, knowledge technologists are likely to become the dominant social – and perhaps also political – force over the next decades.—“ The next society” November 2001).  

Lets us view the impact of using ICT for business in Malaysia.  The history of   Malaysia in IT business was formed in 1963 through a merging of the former British colonies of Malaya and Singapore, including the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo.Malaysia, a middle income country, transformed its economy from 1971 through the late 1990s from relying primarily on the production and export of raw materials, into one of the world’s leading trading nations in electronics and information technology (IT) goods. This success has been attributed to a development model based on private sector led growth social equity.Today, utilizing its diverse resource base (energy, raw materials, manufactured goods and information technology products) and coupled with healthy foreign exchange reserves and relatively small external debt, Malaysia continues its economic success via the promotion of both domestic and foreign based growth engines to help Malaysia achieve its goal of becoming a “developed” nation by the year 2020. 

 (source from )  

 According to The Sallstrom and Nathan study in Malaysia, there are compelling reasons to nurture the IT sector and promote economic growth by aggressively policies targeted at software and IT services industries and spending. What is now required is the realization on how important and urgent the change must come. The nation’s long term economic well being rests on it. We simply have to be earnest about it. More than 30 Malaysian companies are look forward to take part in CeBIT 2002, the world’s leading exhibition for information and telecommunications technology (ICT), scheduled from March 13 to 20 next year in Hanover, Germany. The collaboration between Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (Matrade) and Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDS) are to encourage participation by Malaysia companies to achieve the highest potential in ICT for business. Matrade director for Europe Noharuddin Nordin said at the latest Press conference in Petaling Jaya in this year that Malaysia has continued presence at internationally acclaimed exhibitions is essential to position the country as important parts in ICT sector. He also felt that Malaysian participation in CeBIT certainly guidance the Malaysian companies to endorse their invention and services.

Besides, this exhibition representation the Malaysian companies of the latest advance technology that they can use to enhance their ability in business. However, he added , “the Malaysian participation will be moderate  scale as many companies are being cautious in expanding in overseas markets in view of current global economic condition” ( Nordin 2006)  

 Finally, the Malaysian ICT market display great involvement in ICT industry as a result of cooperation that the government present an exiting exploration to join as a parts of economic contribution. As a result, the Malaysian Market remarkably accomplishes a compounded annual growth rate of over 10% from 2002 to 2007. In addition, other services sector also receives the same beneficial. For examples in finance, products, logistics, and energy and health sectors seeing dynamic growth. (Source: IDC)   


Black and Lynch, 2000 Black, S.E., Lynch, L.M., 2000. What’s driving the new economy: the benefits of workplace innovation? NBER Working Paper No. 7479, Cambridge, Mass, USA.

Devaraj and Kohli, 2003 S. Devaraj and R. Kohli, Performance impacts of information technology: is actual usage the missing link?, Management Science 49 (3) (2003), pp. 273–289. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (74)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2003), ICT and Economic Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries, OECD, Paris.

Happy blogging 🙂


Add a comment March 25, 2008

Second posting on Computer assisted writing.

  Assalamualaikum and  Alhamdullilah to hear from you again. Today, I’m going to talk about online computer assisted writing. I’ll narrow it to how can one can improve their writing using the computer. Besides that, I’m too curious on what are the differences between Offline and Online mode according to OTL book. So, lets check it out what I hv found out here…  In this particular course needs me to write or explain about computerized writing, find examples of software and URL that host computerized activities. So, what is computerized writing? Moreover, how would it help one to rectify their writing skill using the computer? Below is the discussion about computerized writing according to 

ERIC Identifier: ED376474
Publication Date: 1994-00-00
Author: Simic, Marjorie
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication Bloomington IN.  

Computer Assisted Writing Instruction. ERIC Digest

Two factors contributing to the change in writing instruction have been the research investigating the way writing is taught and the computer. Research has found that most teachers are concerned with the final product of writing, but have little understanding of the process that successful writers use in creating that product (Hansen, 1987; Harste et al., 1988). Traditionally, students have been asked to produce compositions on demand, with little guidance on how to work through the steps that quality writing requires. Proponents of the various writing models endorse writing as an ongoing, multi-stage process, with equal emphasis given to each of the stages. Nevertheless, whether writing is taught by the process approach or by a traditional method, one of the barriers to producing good writers is that students must use pencil and paper to transcribe their thoughts and ideas. Many children are able to express thoughtful experiences, but have difficulty with handwriting; they labor over the first draft. To them, making revisions and recopying becomes an overwhelming burden. It is heartbreaking for a teacher to see a child, out of frustration and despair, tear up and throw away a composition because repeated erasures have made holes in the paper. The original enthusiasm the student had for the writing assignment may evaporate, and the student may approach the next assignment with anxiety and apprehension. Some writers, especially young writers, will make only those changes that do not require copying, regardless of how much the revision would improve their compositions. Educational computing has undergone a change of focus regarding how the microcomputer should be used in language arts, and especially in writing (see Cochran-Smith, 1991). No longer that the computers only determined to be as tutors and drillers only. Instead, educators now are realizing that the computer is a tool for handling information. A word processor can become the centerpiece for an effective writing curriculum, encouraging early language production and providing students with opportunities to connect reading and writing. When integrating advanced technology into any curriculum, the teacher must always be aware that it cannot “eliminate” problems. However, with instruction and support from the teacher and peers, most students can experience success in writing through the use of a word processor (Bright, 1990).


As a tool for practice in writing, the word processor’s usefulness is unparalleled. Writing researchers have long advised that the key to fluent writing is to write as much as possible. The key to exact writing is to revise repeatedly. Newman (1984) discusses two important issues: the first is the relationship of recent research on learning to write to word processing. Newman says writing improves more “by experimenting with many aspects of the process at the same time” than by mastering separate skills and blending them. Word processing allows rapid alteration and manipulation of the text, helping writers sustain the mental images they are trying to capture while experimenting with language. The search/replace capability encourages synonym substitution, and the immediate access to a clean copy stimulates further language play. Newman’s second point is that there is a difference between using computers for drill and practice and using them for word processing. With drill and practice software, the computer is in charge–this software tells the user what to do and controls what is learned. With word processing, however, the learner exerts control both in using the computer and in learning to write. The word processor was designed for revising and manipulating language. For inexperienced writers (who tend to make corrections at the word level), proofreading is easier on the computer. As writers become more experienced, they tend to make changes that are more complex. These “reorganization” changes involve moving sentences and paragraphs around, reorganizing whole sections of articles, inserting new materials, and discarding writing that no longer fits or serves. Even a beginner can use the delete, strikeover, and insert functions to make simple changes. Later, with a brief period of practice, more complex changes, such as changing the order of the sections in a paper or adding passages written in another draft, can be made. Ideally, free writing also can be done at the computer. This would encourage students to engage in learning and self-discovery rather than to focus upon the mechanics of exact writing. The word processor can release the writer from restraints that inhibit the free flow of words and ideas. Students can feel free to take risks in their writing because they see that they can always change their minds.


Teachers can get around the typical problem of too few computers in the classroom by having children write on paper first. Then at the word processor, students can “fine-tune” their papers. Concepts presented in the first draft can be examined for clarity and sufficient elaboration. Additional information can be added, if necessary, to make ideas more concrete. Finally, the text can be checked for minor errors and punctuation. Before word processing, this instructional model of writing was not implemented due to the amount of time involved in extensive rewriting or retyping. Most teachers and students were not convinced that the benefits of the revision process were worth the time-consuming mechanics of repeated writing. Students were often apprehensive of even beginning to put their thoughts down on paper because of the work and time involved in making corrections. The word processor has helped realize the advantages offered in process writing. Rewriting and revising are allowed to be the cognitive processes they should be, rather than being dominated by the mechanical aspects of actually putting words down on paper. Students learn to approach their writing errors from a different point of view by struggling to understand what causes problem phrases, sentences, or paragraphs. Besides revising and editing, another benefit of using a word processor is that multiple copies can be printed for reading in peer-editing groups. Final copies can be displayed on a writing bulletin board or in a collection of writings, without any student’s work showing to a disadvantage because of poor handwriting. Moreover, the additional benefit to the student is having an audience other than the teacher.


The word processor offers great advantages but also makes great demands. For effective use of the word processor: (1) the school must make a commitment to its use; and (2) the classroom teacher must make an even stronger commitment, since the teacher must invest a great deal of time in teaching students how to use it. Additionally, teachers must become familiar with the word processor themselves before using it in the classroom. Teachers must also decide when and how to give word processing instruction to their students. If the entire class will use the word processor, the ideal situation would be to place the teacher at the front of a computer for whole-class instruction. However, a peer-tutoring system can also work. This requires a minimal investment of the teacher’s classroom time, and it can be just as efficient. A peer system can be set up by showing just one group how to use the word processing program. Then have each of these students teach at least one other student word processing. Teach the commands as the students need them. A small group of students can learn quickly from the teacher, or they can use the tutorial that comes with some word processing programs for back up. In any case, the key is as much “hands-on” activity as possible. One does not learn to word process by listening to the teacher talk about it; one learns by doing it. If composition by computer is to become as natural an act for children as composition by handwriting, they must be allowed sufficient time to develop proficiency with the keyboard and with the specific word-processing commands. Teachers may be concerned with the fact that only one student at a time can use the word processor and printer. Many activities can be structured to allow “advisers” to work with the person typing. Researchers have described this “sharing” process as central to writing instruction. Working in a group using online writing helps make writing an interactive activity. Children receive immediate feedback from others, making them aware of the need for clarity and for expressing their ideas so that they can be understood by others. This interactive feedback is extremely helpful to writers engaged in revision. It also provides each writer with experience in helping others revise their writings. Composition teachers have recognized that word processing is revolutionizing writing. Revision, long advocated but ignored by both teachers and students as too mechanical and painful, is now possible by pressing a few keys. However, computers do not change the central role of the teacher. If writing and revision can be made easier through effective writing instruction and word processing, then, hopefully, students will begin to write because they enjoy it rather than because they are forced to do so.   

My point of view regarding on the explanation above is using computerized writing as a tool has become widely spread and computer is no longer as a source of information only yet as a technology, which encourages the writing skills. The positive impact from various institution and public participation show remarkable results. They were positive about the events occur in implementing online learning and teaching. However, there are also significant found different results from the above. One of the good examples is in OTL book page, 8 from (Barry and Runyan, 1995; Johnson et al., 2000; Johnson, 2002) Thus, more commitments, facilities, and guidelines on contribution to implement the uses of computerized writing in mass perspective are highly needed. This is essentially to overcome all the circumstances, which frequently exist due to the problem as mention above. In short, computerized writing (online) surely provided huge beneficial to ensure quality presentation in all application, not only in education, financial, economic sectors but also for all walks of life.        

How is writing with a computer (online) different from writing with pen and paper (offline)? 

 If you write by starting at the beginning, continuing to the end and then handing your essay in without redrafting or checking, there is not much difference. However, if you are prepared to think about your writing and improve it as you go through the writing process, there is a big difference. If you write by hand, the chances are that you write in a purely linear fashion. Writing on a computer frees you from a purely linear approach. You can begin and end anywhere, even writing your bibliography (which comes at the end of your essay).In addition, using a computer can help you reflect on your writing and on how to write well. For example, you can learn a lot about the writing process by comparing earlier drafts with later drafts.The table below shows how your computer can help you to write better essays as well as saving you time and effort.   

Table – A comparison of the writing process between paper and computer


Disadvantages – You may make spelling mistakes in your quotes or other important facts (dates, etc.) if you cannot read your own writing properlyA bibliography written on paper will still have to be typed-up and inserted at the end of your essay at a later date  
Advantages – You can make notes on your computer while you read. These can later be incorporated into your essay either in your own writing or as quotesYou can create a bibliography file while you are reading that can later be pasted into your essayYou can also use your computer as a research tool – either to find and order books or to read the many available internet sources
Planning and drafting  
Disadvantages – You might lose important pieces of paper while travelingAny notes you make on paper will have to be re-written or type up later. This is a very tedious taskYou will inevitably use up lots of paper (i.e. trees)
  Advantages – You can use your Word processor to develop your ideas freely through free writing and/or outliningOnce you have stored your early notes and/or drafts it’s a simple process to manipulate them and incorporate them into your draft/redraftDisadvantage – people who are more spatially orientated may prefer to do their initial planning by using mind-mapping techniques
Disadvantages – When writing by hand is largely trap in a linear approach. You cannot insert any new information you may want to include in the most appropriate place. Nor can you re-order your text
Advantages – It is extremely easy to:
change anything;
insert new information anywhere; or re-order your paragraphs on your computer
Editing / Proofreading
Disadvantages – You would have to check the spelling of EVERY word you are unsure of in a dictionary and any grammar problems in a reference book.You would also have to count the number of wordsYou would have to draw lines by hand in your references and type out any mistakes (very ugly)
Advantages – Knowing how to use your computer’s spell checker, and grammar checker functions will greatly reduce time and effort, as well as helping you to catch mistakes you might otherwise miss.(If you use these tools critically, you will also improve your grammar and spelling).You can change font appearance (bold, italic, underline) with a couple of keyboard strokes
Presenting your final draft
Disadvantages – Teachers nowadays expect polished, word-processed essays; a hand-written essay will probably suggested lack of motivation and may be judged more critically.
If you become sick the night before your essay is due you may lose 5% or more of your mark by submitting it late
If you spill your nighttime cocoa over or any happen the night before it is due in, you have to write it all over again
Advantages – Word processing is not only about appearance. A legible, nicely formatted essay with few language errors is easier to read and this means your teacher will be able to understand the content better. So, in turn this suggests you will get a better grade and / or more valuable comments on where your arguments are going wrong
If you can’t make it in to class you can send your essay to your teacher as a file attachment, thus avoiding losing marks unnecessarily
If anything happen to your final essay, you can simply print off another copy. 

Other writing activities online that can you use to upgrade your writing skill are as below:

 Ø  Download the Writing Habits Questionnaire 

The Writing Habits Questionnaire is designed to help you write a short description of your writing habits, which you can then reflect on. In simple explanation is this program surely makes your writing easier. 


This program target on fears of writing and the ways to overcomes it. This course definitely provided you to become an excellent online writer.  


This course will highlight some of the key aspects of writing software documentation from the consideration of your audience to careful word choice to indexing and the reviewing and editing process. By the end of the course, you should have a good idea of what writing software documentation entails and be able to approach software documentation projects logically. 


This program flexibility will help you achieve an excellent writing guideline. Besides, you will enjoy with this interactive teaching approaches. 

 Ø LifeJournal Software 

 Free Personal journal writing software that perfectly lead you the excitement of writing online. (  


Bibliography system and knowledge manager software that allows users to store and cross-link references, notes, and graphic images. (

Ø Scholar’s Aid 

Manages bibliographical data, notes, and projects (e.g., dissertation). It makes footnotes automatically when you transfer data to your document.(


Provides writers with template formatted to American Psychological Association (APA) standards. (

Ø Metanoia, The Author’s Assistant 

Word processor add-on that lets you find relevant quotations to your research topic, and inserts them with citations.  (

Ø ClearEdits 

 Offering a software tool that works with Word and Outlook, which applies powerful editing techniques to improve clarity and readability of a document. 

ØComputerized Thesis Writing Guide 

Software that guides you through and organizes every step of your thesis, dissertation, or senior project. 


Desktop Writing Workshop Learning resource for writers of all levels through multimedia, CD-ROM courses, featuring published author-teacherTom Parker.

Ø Adobe Technical Communication Suite 

 A complete solution for authoring, managing, and publishing interactive instructional information content in multiple formats and languages. 

Ø Familyware 

 Offers biography software for writing about life, both past and present. Both are easily preserved using a categorized, topical outline, and features for reminiscing. 

Last but not least, I believe that you can make a different in your writing patterns and enhance your skill in writing until you achieve a higher level as an advance writer. So, uses as much as possible all the computerized writing software stated as above. Keep on trying and explore the marvelous finding here. 

Happy Good luck!     


Add a comment March 3, 2008






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